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What is PCOS? Symptoms and Causes

PCOS Symptoms

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal disorder affecting women of reproductive age. It’s a condition that can significantly impact a woman’s health and fertility.

Understanding PCOS

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is a complex condition characterized by various factors, which can include:

Irregular Menstrual Cycles: One of the most prevalent signs of PCOS is unpredictable menstrual cycles. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged periods, or even experience missed periods.

Hormonal Imbalance: PCOS disrupts the balance of female sex hormones, particularly estrogen and progesterone. An increase in androgens (male hormones) like testosterone is also a common feature.

Ovarian Cysts: The condition is named after the small cysts that often form on the ovaries. These cysts are actually follicles containing eggs that haven’t matured or been released.

Insulin Resistance: Many women with PCOS exhibit insulin resistance, which can lead to weight gain and increased insulin levels in the body.

Common Symptoms of PCOS

The symptoms of PCOS can vary from person to person, but the most frequent ones include:

  1. Irregular Menstrual Periods: As mentioned, unpredictable menstrual cycles are a hallmark of PCOS.
  2. Hirsutism: Excessive hair growth on the face, chest, back, or buttocks due to the elevated androgen levels.
  3. Acne: Increased androgens can also lead to acne and oily skin.
  4. Weight Gain: Many women with PCOS struggle with weight management, which can further complicate the condition.
  5. Hair Thinning: Thinning of the hair on the scalp is a less common but distressing symptom.
  6. Skin Darkening: Some women may experience skin darkening in areas like the neck, groin, and under the breasts.

Potential Causes of PCOS

The exact cause of PCOS remains a subject of ongoing research, but a combination of factors may contribute to its development:

  1. Hormonal Imbalance: Imbalances in sex hormones, including insulin, may play a role.
  2. Genetics: PCOS often runs in families, suggesting a genetic link.
  3. Insulin Resistance: Insulin resistance can lead to elevated insulin levels and increased androgen production.
  4. Inflammation: Chronic inflammation may contribute to the condition’s symptoms.
  5. Environmental Factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins may also be a factor.


PCOS is a complex and often challenging condition that can affect various aspects of a woman’s health, including her fertility. Understanding the symptoms and potential causes of PCOS is the first step towards managing and treating the condition effectively. If you suspect you have PCOS, consult a healthcare professional who can provide a proper diagnosis and guide you through your treatment options. PCOS is a manageable condition, and with the right care, women can lead healthy and fulfilling lives.

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